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 What is Electric Vechicle? Home > Electric Vehicles in Asia Pacific > What is Electric Vechicle?
 

The rapidly increased number of vehicles and intensifying traffic congestion in large cities caused serious air and noise pollution, and necessitated urgent and comprehensive measures to promote low emission vehicles around the world. Further, with the objective of the prevention of global warming, it is critical to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from the transport sector, which produces substantial percentage of the total carbon dioxide emission in many countries.
Electric vehicles, including battery, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, produce zero or near-zero emissions and CO2 emissions from all stages of fuel production through driving are also significantly lower than those for gasoline powered vehicles. Their energy efficiency is estimated to be twice or more that of today’s gasoline engine vehicles. Further, fueled by electricity or hydrogen, they contribute to the diversification of energy, departure from dependence on oil, and the use of clean energy.


Battery Electric Vehicle


HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE
Hybrid electric vehicles are powered by both internal combustion engine and electric motor independently or jointly, doubling the fuel efficiency compared with a conventional vehicle. Hybrid passenger cars are achieving a substantial success in sales in Japan and in the U.S. due to the features of high fuel efficiency, low emissions and affordable price.

Series hybrid system Designed to extend the range of EVs on a single charge. The internal combustion engine is solely used to generate electricity.
Parallel hybrid system Designed to increase fuel efficiency of ICE and to decrease exhaust emissions. The engine provides main propulsion, and the generator works in parallel to assist the engine to drive.
Series-Parallel hybrid system Combination of series and parallel hybrid systems. The vehicle is powered by both ICE and a motor either independently or jointly.


Hybrid Electric Vehicle


FUEL CELL VEHICLE
FCVs are propelled by electric motors that run on electricity generated by combining hydrogen and oxygen in fuel cells. FCVs emit only water vapor and no toxic exhaust gases. They promise increased energy efficiency and performance comparable to the internal combustion engine vehicles. Fuel cells will also make for diversification of energy sources for they can use hydrogen produced from alternative fuels and renewable energy. A variety of innovative technologies of fuel cell is also expected to reinforce the industrial competitive power and foster new industries.


Fuel Cell Vehicle


Fuel Cell
When water is decomposed by electricity, hydrogen and oxygen are produced. Fuel cells generate electricity by reversing this reaction, or combining hydrogen and oxygen in the air. As a result, only water vapor is emitted. Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) uses a polymer ion exchange membrane for an electrolyte, and operates at a relatively low temperature (about 80oC), suitable for vehicles. Fuel cells are composed of cells. Like flat dry cell batteries, a fuel cell is composed of two (positive and negative) electrodes surrounding a solid polymer membrane (electrolytic membrane). Hydrogen and oxygen electrodes have many narrow grooves. Externally supplied oxygen and hydrogen react when they pass through the grooves.


Japan Automobile Research Institute(JARI)
1-1-30, Shibadaimon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0012
Phone: +81 3 5733 7927  Fax: +81 3 5473 0655  mtakahas@jari.or.jp